By Jamie Mercer
Thinking about introducing Java into your development practices?
Deciding on the right programming language for your business can be tricky; it gets even more difficult when most of your business fails to grasp the basics of the language.
Java is the most popular programming language used in development today, and if you’ve got questions, then we’ve got the answers. Take a look at our Java FAQs to find out how it can benefit your business.
Java is a programming language and computing platform owned by Oracle Corporation. Originally developed by Sun Microsystems, the object-oriented language is an integral part of the entire Java software platform.
Designed to be implemented with as few dependencies as possible, Java promotes a ‘WORA’ (write once, run anywhere) strategy, allowing your business to run it successfully on all development platforms.
A cornerstone of the IT industry, Gartner estimates that the language is used by more than 80% of large-enterprise IT departments, and its developer base is expected to grow steadily, thanks to its expanding support of languages such as JRuby and Scala.
There are four different platforms of the Java programming languages. When deciding on which platform to use in your business, you’ll need to consider their niche specialities and the impact they’ll have on your development team.
Java Standard Edition (Java SE) is the core programming platform offered by Oracle. Containing all of the relevant libraries and APIs to create and deploy code, it is the foundation for all other available Java platforms.
The basic level of Java SE includes the following development features
There are several APIs available for use within the standard edition platform; a full list can be found on the Oracle website.
Currently, there is no added costs for a business to commercially use the basic version of Java SE. However, from January 2019, if you fail to upgrade to the latest release of the language, your business can face added costs if you require extra support from Oracle.
This edition of Java SE allows larger enterprises to minimise the overall cost of Java management. A subscription-based platform, Java SE Advanced provides a business with the capacity to deploy, manage and maintain all their Java applications in one place.
The key features of Java SE Advanced include the management and control of business-wide Java deployments through the Advanced Machine Console (AMC), and the pre-emption and resolution of application issues with the Java Flight Recorder (JFR) and Java Mission Control (JMC).
The product also allows organisations who run older editions of Java, such as 7, to receive updates, keeping their development environment secure while also giving them direct access to a specialised support team.
This Oracle product allows for all of the functionality above, but it is limited to desktop use cases.
This product offers all of the features of Java SE Advanced with the addition of Oracle JRockit Real Time, which allows users to add real-time performance to an application without changing any code.
Offered on an enterprise-wide, term-based plan, the subscription model includes cloud deployment, server, and desktop licensing and support.
|1-999||Named User Plus||$2.50|
|1,000 – 2,999||Named User Plus||$2.00|
|3,000 – 3,999||Named User Plus||$1.75|
|10,000 – 19,999||Named User Plus||$1.50|
|20,000 – 49,999||Named User Plus||$1.25|
|50,000 +||Contact Oracle of details|
Java SE Subscription Pricing
|1,000 – 2,999||Processor||$17.50|
|3,000 – 9,999||Processor||$15.00|
|10,000 – 19,999||Processor||$12.00|
|20,000+||Contact Oracle of details|
An enterprise edition of the Java programming language powered by Java, the platform allows for the extension of the basic specification’s used within Java SE to be used with distributed computing and web services.
Originally maintained by Oracle, the company transferred ownership to the Eclipse Foundation in 2017, and made the application entirely open source.
Partnering the fundamentals of Jakarta EE, this versions of the programming language also extends to incorporate some of the basics functionality of Java SE APIs by using technology such as Enterprise JavaBeans, connectors, servlets, JavaServer Pages and other web services technologies.
Java ME is a specific Oracle platform targeted at consumer electronics and embedded devices. Housing a collection of technologies and specifications to create mobile applications, it was initially developed as an environment to fit the requirements of particular tools and is based on three elements:
Currently, there are two configurations of Java ME for a business to utilise during development. The Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC), is designed to meet the needs of a Java platform running on devices with limited memory, processing power, and graphics.
Whereas the Connected Device Configuration (CDC), is targeted specifically at devices with a network connection and can be used to develop applications for devices such as smartphones.
The CDC reference implementation code is free of charge for personal and educational use. However, if your business wishes to utilise Java ME, then you must sign a commercial agreement with Oracle.
Using a lighter weight user-interface API this Java platforms allows businesses to create rich internet applications. Any Java FX application may be a client of the Java EE platform services.
In the marketplace there are currently two releases of Java available for commercial and personal use.
Java 8 is the current long-term support version of the language that will receive extended support from Oracle until 2019 for commercial users and 2020 for non-commercial users.
The newly released version of the programming language Java 11 — the current rapid release version — will replace Java 8 as the long-term support version.
Following the launch of Java 11, it was announced that Java 12 would be available for commercial and public download in March 2019, with free updates expected to stop in September 2019.
Java Standard Edition (Java SE) currently has two releases that allow users to develop Java applications. Now operating a bi-annual release cycle, Oracle will only provide active support for two versions: its long-term support (LTS) version and rapid release version.
The current rapid release version, Java 11, was launched in September 2018 and introduced 17 new features to the programming language:
Popular with businesses of all shapes and sizes, Java 8, the current long-term support version of the programming languages, it’s recommended that a company uses the following operating systems, servers, and web browsers:
Mac OS X
A 64-bit browser (Safari, for example) is required to run Oracle Java on Mac.
The latest edition of the language, Java 11 follows much of the same programming rules, but if you choose to use this version, there are slight differences which a business should take into account.
Mac OS X
A 64-bit browser (Safari, for example) is required to run Oracle Java on Mac.
There are many commercial certifications available for developers to gain a more in-depth knowledge of the programming language. Adding a Java certification to your portfolio can also add to your chances of getting hired, as many businesses value the extra string to your bow.
As the owner of the Java programming language, Oracle offers four certifications specifically for those looking to gain a deeper understanding of Java fundamentals, or more advanced knowledge of the language specialities.
There are multiple versions of each certification available, so when choosing which is right you, it can come down to cost and your previous knowledge of the programming language.
For a developer looking to gain extra knowledge of the Java SE platform, there are three levels of certification available. Java SE associate, professional, and master.
Each of these examinations will require a developer to have a basic understanding of the language and previous working knowledge of the Java Development Kit (JDK) and the Java Runtime Environment.
|Java Foundation Certified Junior Associate||£60|
|Oracle Certified Associate, Java SE 7 Programmer||£198|
|Oracle Certified Associate, Java SE 8 Programmer||£198|
|Oracle Certified Associate, Java SE 5 / SE 6||£198|
|Oracle Certified Professional, JAVA SE 8 Programmer||£198|
|Oracle Certified Professional, JAVA SE 8 Programmer (upgrade from Java SE 6 and prior versions||£198|
|Oracle Certified Professional, JAVA SE 8 Programmer (upgrade from Java SE 7)||£198|
|Oracle Certified Professional, JAVA SE 7 Programmer||£198|
|Oracle Certified Professional, JAVA SE 7 Programmer (upgrade)||£198|
|Oracle Certified Professional, JAVA SE 6 Programmer||£198|
|Oracle Certified Professional, JAVA SE 6 Programmer (upgrade)||£198|
|Java Developer Certified Master Assignment||$245|
|Java SE 6 Developer Certified Master Assignment||$245|
|Java SE 6 Developer Certified Master Essay||$245|
If you’re already an expert in the Java programming language, and you’re looking for that extra spark to help you stand out from the crowd during an interview situation, then gaining a Java EE certification could be your best bet.
Before taking the examination, it’s recommended that you complete one of the following courses offered by Oracle, and also have a strong technical understanding of the language.
What are the costs of a Java EE master certification?
|Java EE 6 Enterprise Architect Certified Master||$150|
|Java (EE) Enterprise Architect Certified Master Assignment||$150|
When implementing Java into your business, you’ll need to get to grips with more than just the fundamental aspects of Java development.
The first three technical terms you should familiarise yourself with are JRE, JDK, and JVM. These three tools used to create applications will crop up a lot throughout Java development, and if you’re unsure of how they can help your business, you may struggle.
Although you most commonly develop in Java, there are other languages which can be successfully coded and deployed on a JVM. Generally used to partner Java during the development process, they have key features which the language doesn’t have itself.
This is a high performing, stable, fully threaded Java implementation of the Ruby programming language.
Although the syntax is not compatible with Java, Kotlin is one of the most common languages to run on the JVM. Koplin is a fully supported language in the Android Studio and is included in 3.0 as an alternative to the standard Java compiler.
Scala fuses object-orientated model with functional programming ideas together, allowing developers to use many of the features you typically would in Java.
Allowing the users to get the best of both worlds, it lets programmers express algorithms more clearly than in Java.
An IDE is a software application that provides developers with all the tools they’ll need to create a piece of software. Typically an IDE contains a source code editor, build automation tool, and debugger. Many businesses and developers have an IDE that they stick to for all development processes.
An open source IDE, Eclipse can handle a variety of development frameworks. Famous for its integrated Java development environment, it also has a specific package that can be utilised by Java EE developers. Easily customisable with several extensions available in the marketplace.
Another popular cross-platform IDE that features multi-language support, bracket matching, debugger, and coding templates. There are two versions currently available: a free community edition and an ultimate edition which supports the Java language right from the get-go.
Frameworks are prewritten pieces of code that you can add to your domain to solve issues. When used with Java, there are many popular frameworks which can add extra elements to the programming language.
Used as web framework by business and developers, Spring offers a complete programming model that is developed on and with the Java programming language. Spring provides applications a way to get up and running with Spring Boot, build resilient cloud applications with Spring Cloud, and is one of the most popular frameworks available.
Hibernate ORM is a framework that used as an object-relational mapping tool for Java which allows for the creation of regional databases. Its primary feature is to map Java classes to a database table, and it also provides data query and retrieval features.
A framework is a group of classes and other pre-compiled code on which an application can be built. An API is the features and libraries used to develop an application.
An IDE is the software used to develop and compile the code for an application and will include all the tools to do it successfully. A framework will add to and extend the development language and is normally written by a third party but can be integrated into a specific project.
When used in Java, a servlet is a Java program that extends the capabilities of a server. Usually an aspect of development that responds to a specific network request, most commonly the HTTP request.
Maven is a tool that can be used for dependency management, build definition and packaging Java projects
Agile development is a series of methodologies and strategies based on being responsive to change. Typical implementations include Scrum (the most common) and Kanban. It encourages smaller iterations of deliverables, and greater customer/client engagement with feedback driving future development cycles.
Often outdated these days, Waterfall development can still be used to effectively create applications and software. In waterfall, requirement are planned before the start of development, and delivery is defined into specific phases.
JSP is a technology that allows software developers to generate web pages based on HTML, XML, and other document types. Although it is similar to the PHP, it runs using the Java programming language.
Now Wildfly, JBoss is an open-source application server that is written in Java and is used to implement Java EE applications.
We hope our guide into the fundamentals and the more technical aspects of Java has helped you to gain a deeper understanding on what your development team is getting their hands on.
Sign up for tech tips